Characters : Elizabeth (Allan) Osborn
The prettiest student at Midtown High
Drive Flash Thompson insane with jealousy. Endure a life surrounded by superpowered friends and relatives.
New York City
Nurse, Executive of Osborn Industries
Molten Man, Spider-Man
Harry Osborn (deceased), Peter Parker, Molten Man
Norman Osborn Jr (son), Harry Osborn (husband, deceased), Norman Osborn Sr. (father-in-law), Mark Raxton (step-brother)
Arrested for attempted robbery
Green Goblin, Mysterio, Hobgoblin (Kingsley)
Elizabeth (Allan) Osborn
Liz Allan is remembered for being one of the popular girls at Midtown High School and for dating Flash Thompson. (She was also friends with Jason Ionello, Sally Avril, Seymour O'Reilly, Tiny McKeever and Carl King.) Still, in her very first confirmed appearance Liz is reluctantly accepting a date from Peter because she just didn't have the heart to keep shooting him down. (Pretty gutsy of Peter to keep asking out someone's girlfriend, especially when he is standing right there listening.) Peter had to cancel suddenly, as he remember that J. Jonah Jameson had told him to get pictures of the Sandman, so he could prove that he and Spider-Man were one and the same. Peter tells Liz that he has to cancel to study for the next day's test, to which Liz answers "Peter Parker! You're the top student in the class! If you cant spare one evening for a date, then I'm sorry for you! Goodbye!" After Spidey apprehends the Sandman (at the high school, in front of his classmates no less) she tells Flash to not be so cruel to Peter after one of his taunts.
Liz wasn't totally averse to Peter but she did develop a crush on Spider-Man after he saved her from two ruby thieves at a natural history museum. Flash was concerned that Liz wasn't paying attention to him after her rescue and he was right to be. She was too busy swooning over Spider-Man's strong arms around her. After Peter returned to New York after fighting the Lizard in Florida, he gave Liz a call, who blew him off. She was waiting for Spider-Man to call her. She was less kind to Peter after he showed up to school with his arm in a sling, a souvenir from battling the Vulture. Flash mocked Peter, saying he probably hurt himself turning too many pages in a book at once, which Liz thought was a riot. She was still in love with Spider-Man when Mr. Petty of the I.C.M. Corporation introduced the class to the Living Brain. The students decided to test the machine by asking it who Spider-Man really was. The class described the web swinger, and Liz called him "the most wonderful, heroic, glamorous man in the whole world!"
After May Parker was in the hospital for a surgery, Liz and Flash showed up for moral support. The doctor told Peter that May needed a blood transfusion and Liz talked him into donating the blood, despite his discomfort with the radioactivity that gave him his powers being passed to her. At a later date, a weakened Spider-Man went after Doctor Octopus after he kidnapped Betty Brant. Peter was unmasked by the mad man and discarded as an impostor. Peter was humiliated when the story was printed in the Daily Bugle but Liz Allan read the story and told him how wonderful she thought it was that he tried to save Betty. Flash tried to cut Peter down to size and Liz blasted him, saying that Peter had both courage and brains but Flash had neither. After Peter successfully captured Doc Ock, Liz invited him to a party and he told her to go hang out with Flash because they deserved each other.
Liz admitted that she and Flash deserved to be talked to like that but she still pursued Peter, asking him if he liked her new hair style. He really didn't want to be bothered with it. She continued flattering Peter every chance she got, whether about his test scores or helping him adjust his tie. (This did not sit well with Betty.) She later invited Peter to join the Spider-Man Fan Club, despite Flash's and Betty's disapproval. Her father owned the Avenue Dinner Club and let the club use it to hold their first meeting. When Flash whined about Peter coming, Liz threatened to tell her father to cancel the whole thing. Spider-Man arrived for the evening but Liz was disappointed when Peter was nowhere to be seen. The party was crashed by Liz's future father in law, Norman Osborn, the Green Goblin. The Human Torch also was in attendance but as the crowd slowly realized that what they were seeing was not a stage show, Liz wondered out loud why she never saw Peter and Spider-Man in the same place at the same time. Spidey overheard her comment and ran off to change into Peter, then "arrived" to say hi to Liz. Peter soon ran back to the fight between Goblin and Torch, making Liz think that he must be "part ghost."
Spider-Man had to leave the fight suddenly when he heard an announcement that Peter's aunt was in the hospital from a heart attack. The newspaper called Spider-Man a coward and Flash decided to defend his hero's honor by dressing as him and fighting crime. Liz, afraid for the lunkhead, told Peter about his plan and agreed to stay and look after May while Peter went looking for Flash. She later told Peter that Flash was angry with her for telling Peter of all people of his plan. Peter and Betty started drifting apart after she started seeing Ned Leeds and Flash grew increasingly jealous of Peter eventually going to his house to fight him. Liz was there to stop him and Betty came to make Peter tell Jameson to stop sending Spencer Smythe's robots after Spider-Man. They arrived at the Parker house at the same time and Aunt May introduced them to Mary Jane Watson. Both girls left in shock at the new girl's looks.
Flash eventually caught up with Peter and taunted him into a fight. Finally fed up with him, Peter tackled the group, only to have Liz stop him from beating them senseless. Peter and Flash exchanged some harsh words and Liz said she was tired of both of them. They all soon graduated from high school and after the ceremony Liz told him that she was ready to move on. She didn't want to just be some dizzy blond anymore.
Liz returned several years later, shortly after the death of Gwen Stacy. She found him walking home and said that she needed to talk to him. Liz was exhausted and Peter took her to Mary Jane's apartment to get some rest. After she woke up, she told MJ that her step-brother, Mark Raxton, was also the criminal called the Molten Man. He had suffered the lab accident that changed him shortly before she had graduated from high school and she had disappeared for so long because she was taking care of him. Liz had become a nurse and was the only person he had contact with for months. Mark eventually lost patience with her and escaped from the hospital, trying to find a way to cure himself. He began stealing meteorites that he believed could make him into Mark Raxton again. His plan failed and he fell into the river from a bridge while fighting Spider-Man.
Peter, MJ and Flash Thompson welcomed Liz into their group and soon went on a day long boat ride up the Hudson River. Unfortunately, the boat was hijacked by Tarantula I and his thugs, who robbed the passengers and blackmailed the city for their safety. Spidey tried to intervene but was forced to leave the boat after a crew member was tossed overboard. Spidey made his way back to the boat but was poisoned by Tarantula's dagger shoes. As Spider-Man lay weakly on the deck of the boat, the Punisher showed up. The ship was saved when the Tarantula...escaped.
Liz helped Peter find a new apartment after his previous one had been blown up in a bomb set by Harry Osborn, Peter's room mate. Harry became the second Green Goblin and kidnapped Aunt May, Mary Jane and Flash Thompson, threatening to kill the one that Peter cared about the most. Harry was eventually defeated and taken to a psychiatric hospital by the police. When he was eventually released after many months of therapy, he attended the wedding of Betty and Ned. The wedding was interrupted by Mirage, who robbed the guests. One of the thugs grabbed Liz's purse and Harry tried to grab it back. Some time after the wedding, Liz ran into Harry and Flash outside of their apartment and invited Harry out for coffee. They quickly became a couple, as Peter and MJ found out as they visited Aunt May in the hospital. They double dated and went to an amusement park, where they dealt with the Punisher and Nightcrawler. Soon Liz and Harry were engaged.
The engagement was going smoothly until the Molten Man coerced Liz into stealing drugs and chemicals from the hospital she worked at. She was captured and sent to jail. Peter came to talk to her and she refused to say why she took the chemicals. Clues at her apartment made Spider-Man check Newhope Memorial hospital, where he found Molten Man taking a briefcase of materials from storage. Spidey was eventually trapped in a fire as Molten Man escaped. Liz was later set free from prison after Robbie Robertson paid her bail but she was soon taken by the police to Fenster Pharmaceutical Labs, where Raxton was threatening to destroy the building. (The chemicals he stole didn't have the desired effect of curing him.) Liz went inside the building to talk to her step brother, as did Spider-Man. Raxton spotted Spider-Man and the following battle ended with M.M. falling into canisters of liquid oxygen, causing an explosion. Part of the building collapsed and Liz was trapped between the ledge and her delusional brother. Spidey swung in and saved her at the last moment. The rest of the building collapsed and Liz ran off, unable to cope.
Liz stayed away for a while, not showing up until after Harry and Peter defeated the third Green Goblin, Dr. Barton Hamilton. Liz and Harry both seemed fairly stable, considering she witnessed her brothers death and he was betrayed by his therapist. They felt good enough to go to a disco with Peter and MJ, where the Hypno-Hustler was performing. Later, during the Doctor Octopus/Owl War, the Black Cat had been injured and was recuperating in the hospital. Ock had sworn revenge on both she and Spider-Man for their interference in the gang war. Felicia was vulnerable in the hospital and before the inevitable final battle Peter went out for what could have been his last lunch with Flash, Harry, Liz and Sha Shan. In his way, he said goodbye to them before he went back to the hospital to await Octavius.
After Liz and Harry got married, she was soon pregnant with their only child, Norman Osborn Jr. She was nearly ready to give birth when she and Mary Jane were kidnapped by men working for the Hobgoblin. The women had finished having lunch at a restaurant when they were taken as incentive for Harry to hand over his father's Green Goblin journals to Hobgoblin. They were held captive in a warehouse used by the Rose and Harry was also held there after he brought the final journal to Hobgoblin. Spidey followed the kidnapped Osborn to the warehouse and distracted Hobgoblin while Harry tried to lead Liz and MJ to safety. A fire caused by an errant pumpkin bomb meeting a propane tank trapped the three civilians. Spidey was forced to let Hobgoblin go to save them. Liz soon gave birth to their son.
Harry and Liz lived in New Jersey but decided to move back to Manhattan after Osborn Chemical was destroyed during the demonic invasion called Inferno. (During Inferno, Liz and Normie were attacked at their home by the Jason Macendale Hobgoblin, who demanded to talk to Harry. After Spider-Man fought the Hobgoblin off, Harry found a spare Green Goblin costume in the attic. She just missed seeing the Green Goblin fly out of the attic vent to take on Hobgoblin.) Harry wanted to be closer to the city so he could oversee the reconstruction of his father's company. This was fortunate for Peter and Mary Jane, as they had recently been evicted from their previous apartment by Jonathan Caesar, who was obsessed with MJ. Harry offered to let them move into an upstairs loft and the Parkers accepted the offer.
Liz was soon blackmailed by her step brother, who demanded $10,000 from her. Peter agreed to look after their apartment while Harry and Liz stayed in hiding. Mark came to the Osborn residence looking for her and Peter changed to Spider-Man. After the fight, Mark calmed down and was willing to talk with his step sister. Harry offered Mark a job, which he accepted.
While babysitting Normie one day, Mary Jane found a Green Goblin costume in an alcove in the Osborn home. She and Peter confronted Liz, who was indignant that they would suggest that Harry was unstable again. After they tried to prove their point by going to get the costume (which was now gone) Liz demanded an apology. Harry had told her that he had destroyed the costume after he went after the Hobgoblin. Peter was suspicious of her, as she seemed more scared by all of this than she would be, unless she were also concerned. Her fear was well founded, as Harry's memories of being the Green Goblin began to come back, as did his memory of Peter's secret. The Goblin tried to kill Spider-Man but Harry still didn't fully have the sadistic drive to kill Peter and let him go. Harry stayed away for a while, leaving Liz and Mark wondering what he would do next.
He made his move by kidnapping the two of them and Normie, telling them that they were all Osborns and that things were going to be wonderful from that point forward. Liz, in a panic, tried to run but found all of the doors in the Osborn mansion were barricaded shut. She resigned herself to listening to Harry's ranting about the future and tried to talk sense to him after Spider-Man arrived. Spidey hesitated to beat the Goblin in front of his wife and son but Liz told Harry that she understood how hard it was for him growing up with Norman's abuse but that it all needed to change. They couldn't go on that way and she wouldn't let Harry hurt their son the way that Norman had hurt him. Little Normie, not knowing better, sided with his father and Harry told him that he was a real Osborn, unlike his mother.
The Goblin was eventually taken away by the police and ended up in The Vault, a prison in Colorado. Liz went to see him, telling him that their lawyer claimed that the evidence against Harry was circumstantial and related to Norman's crimes as the Green Goblin, not Harry. The police wanted her to testify against Harry for the kidnapping but she refused. Harry became violent after she mentioned that he seemed feverish and he broke out of his restraints to prove he was still strong. He choked Liz, telling her that no one knew how strong he really was and he wanted her to promise that she wouldn't raise Normie to be weak either. The Guardsmen at the Vault subdued Harry and took Liz away, who still proclaimed that she still loved him.
The Osborns lawyer must have been worth his paycheck, because he was able to get the prosecution to drop all charges and release Harry. Liz was clearly uncomfortable with being in Harry's presence but nervously played along with his charade that everything was wonderful. Her anxiety was justified, as Harry's fever made him act erratically and violently. After she suggested that he get some rest he shoved her against a wall a screamed at her to stop talking to him like he was weak. Mary Jane tried to talk reason to Liz, who steadfastly maintained that it was the Parkers that were making everyone upset. Liz asked MJ to leave, telling her that she was as bad as Spider-Man. Spider-Man and the Green Goblin soon had their final battle and Harry succumbed to the toxic nature of the experimental Goblin Formula that he used on himself.
Naturally, Liz took becoming a young widow very hard and even started drinking. Luckily she stopped after Normie asked her if she was going to leave him like Daddy did. She repeatedly called the Parkers for a friendly ear but Peter only reluctantly agreed to see her and Normie. He was moved to be a positive role model for Normie after encountering a hologram diary of Harry's, which explained the generations of familial abuse in the Osborn house. Liz was soon exposed to a similar holographic/mind control device, part of a plan that Harry left behind if he were killed by Spider-Man. Three robotic Green Goblin women kidnapped Normie and tried to expose him to the Goblin Formula, the same one that killed Harry. Spidey was aided in the search for Normie by Daily Bugle reporter Ben Urich and Mark Raxton.
Liz was later forced to deal with a fourth Green Goblin: Phil Urich. Phil's uncle was, incidentally, Ben Urich, the Daily Bugle reporter that wrote a book about the Osborns and the Green Goblin, called "Legacy of Evil." As the Osborns were so closely linked to the Goblin, Liz wanted to know who this new glider-rider was. Ben, Phil and Liz searched the warehouse where the Goblin first appeared, a warehouse that once belonged to Harry. They found the warehouse cleaned out. Meanwhile, a thief calling herself Angel Face heard that Liz was likely to inherit a fortune after Harry's death and planned to kidnap Normie as ransom. Angel Face demanded that Liz hand over her electronic financial information when the Green Goblin burst through the hotel window. He quickly disarmed Face's assistants, Salt and Pepper but Face escaped with Normie. The Goblin recovered the boy and Liz said that she didn't know why the person behind the mask became the new Green Goblin but she hoped that he would somehow make amends for her husband's crimes.
The new Goblin didn't stay in the vigilante business for long but Liz did have to deal with her returned father in law, Norman Osborn. Liz was one of the many people (including Jonah Jameson, Flash Thompson, Robbie Robertson, Betty Brant, Glory Grant, "Foggy" Nelson, Ben Urich, Ken Ellis and Angela Yin) that has been mysteriously summoned to the Daily Bugle on Halloween night. It was a trap set by Norman, who was busy battling Peter and Ben Reilly as the Green Goblin. The Bugle offices, unknown to the occupants, was fully of high explosive pumpkin bombs, disguised as Halloween decorations. The Goblin gave Liz a hard smack as he told the captives that they all had earned his hatred and disgust. Liz was singled out because Norman claimed that she had catered to Harry's weakness and prevented him from acting like a man. Spider-Man forced the Goblin outside and the hostages were freed by Ben Reilly. The Green Goblin escaped after killing Ben in front of Peter.
Liz was soon called on by her friends to help solve the mystery of the original Hobgoblin's identity. A captured Jason Macendale had made claims to the media that Ned Leeds had been the original Hobgoblin, which caused a furor in the criminal underworld and amongst the Hobgoblin's victims. The Hobgoblin came out of retirement and killed Macendale in prison, then later murdered George Vandergill, who was attempting a hostile take over of OsCorp. Betty Brant suspected that a corporate angle was the major thread running through the Hobgoblin's crimes, as Vandergill's murder and rumors of a big corporate shake up pointed in that direction. Flash went to Liz to get her opinion of Betty's theory, as Liz became the CEO of OsCorp after Harry's death. Off the record, Liz suspected that Donald Menken, an employee left over from Norman's ownership of OsCorp, was still loyal to the elder Osborn, a concerning possibility after Norman was found to still be alive.
Liz was right to be suspicious of Norman and Donald but for the wrong reasons. Donald was playing both Norman and Roderick Kingsley, hoping to come out on top. Norman returned to OsCorp after the Hobgoblin was unmasked and sent to prison and took back his company from Liz. He simply sauntered into his old office and threatened Liz, saying he would have OsCorp and Normie as his grandson...or no one would. Norman quickly walked all over Liz in front of Normie and her new love, "Foggy" Nelson, an associate of Daredevil. Both Foggy and MJ said that Liz needed to stand up to Norman and not let him use her like chess pieces. Afraid for her safety as well as her son's, Liz stormed away.
Liz followed Norman's orders and didn't stand in his way but this silent assistance didn't keep Normie safe from his grandfather. She did eventually argue with her father in law, telling him that she refused to move herself and her son into his home for their own safety. Norman's temper was what the boy needed to be protected from, not some obscure outside threat. After that argument, Norman tried to clear his name and used a surrogate Green Goblin (Green Goblin V) to kidnap the boy and hold him for ransom. Norman made a tearful plea on TV asking the Goblin to bring Normie home safely. The boy was soon rescued by Spider-Man, the Punisher and a civilian named Clarence Fielding.
Liz's relationship with Foggy ended soon after, as part of a master plan concocted by the master of illusions, Mysterio. Mysterio manipulated Foggy into having an affair, causing Liz to break up with him.
Harry, as Osborns tend to do, turned up alive years after everyone thought he was dead. His "death" was faked by Norman, who wanted to get Harry cured of his drug addiction, with help from Mysterio. Harry's return caused some problems with his life insurance policy (I wonder if they had to pay the money back to the company...) and Harry and Peter drove to her home in New Jersey to sort it out. Liz wasn't happy to see Harry and neither was Normie. The insurance money paid for her new house and Mark Raxton's medical treatments and Harry's return to New York ruined all of it. In the heat of an argument, Liz asked him why he couldn't just die like a normal person. Mark, in deteriorating health, came out of his treatment room and tried to kill Harry as payback for all the suffering he caused Liz. Harry tried to cure Mark with an antidote in a harpoon gun but Liz pulled it away from him, calling him her "insane Green Goblin/ex-husband." She eventually trusted Harry to use the antidote, which cured Mark of being the Molten Man. Afterward, she told Harry that the scales were balanced and she gave him back her wedding ring, hoping that he had better luck with it in the future.
Liz soon became the CEO of "Allan Chemical." She also became the majority shareholder of Horizon Labs, the employer of Spider-Man (Octavius). The take over was made possible with the help of Tiberius Stone, a former scientist at Horizon. Otto's spider sense buzzed the entire time that Liz and Tiberius were at Horizon and he followed them as Spider-Man. He stopped the limousines and threatened Stone, just in time to be stopped by the Spider-Man from the year 2099. (Superior Spider-Man #17)
Put off by Spider-Man's arrogance, Miguel O'Hara (Spider-Man 2099) insulted his technology, calling it low tech. This enraged the prideful Octavius and he attempted to squash the intruding Spider with a car, but his spider sense went into overload when Tiberius activated a device meant to do just that. The car nearly fell on top of Normie, who was saved by O'Hara. Liz left with her son, having nothing more to say to Spider-Man. (Superior Spider-Man #18) Soon, Liz and Tiberius were toasting the creation of the merger of her father's chemical company with Normie's share of OsCorp. The addition of Horizon created the super corporation named Alchemax. Little did they know, but Stone's personal assistant was Miguel O'Hara, who had been stranded in the past and decided to keep an eye on the company that he knew was destined for human rights abuses. (Superior Spider-Man #19)
Shortly after Alchemax was established, Liz soon faced an attempted robbery from The Wrecking Crew, a group of thugs powered with Asgardian weaponry. The theft was averted by the Superior Spider-Man and his Superior Six (Vulture, Sandman, Chameleon, Mysterion and Electro.) (Superior Spider-Man Team Up #5) Liz was also approached by Mayor Jameson to build spider slayers. Both Spencer and Alistaire Smythe were dead, so Jameson wanted her to use Alchemax to take over and improve the spider patrol. Liz was hesitant to use the research created by murderers but since Jameson was positive that he wanted her to cooperate, she agreed. Soon, Tiberius and Miguel were put to work. (Superior Spider-Man #23)
As the Goblin King began his assault on New York, Mayor Jameson called for the spider slayers to be put into action. Lix warned him that they weren't ready but he demanded that they be used. (Superior Spider-Man #27) After the spider slayers were deployed to fight the Goblin army, they were hacked into and used to attack Spider-Man and the police. Jameson blamed Alchemax for the disaster during a press conference and Liz responded by severing ties to the Jameson administration. She also reminded Jameson that he had signed waivers agreeing that any malfunction of the robots would his fault alone. After she had sent her message, Liz hid a Goblin mask from Normie when he came into her office. (Superior Spider-Man #30)
After Otto was removed from Peter's mind and Pete regained control, he and Miguel O'Hara headed for Alchemax to confront the Goblin King. They found Tiberius Stone, Liz, Normie and Lily Hollister at the Alchemax building and as Miguel helped the four evacuate, Stone set off a device that sent Peter's spider sense into overload. Miguel stopped him and Liz promised that Stone would pay for what he did. After the Goblin King was defeated, Liz "accidentally" set off the same spider sense device that Stone had used, allowing Norman Osborn to escape from Spider-Man. Spidey claimed to believe that it had been an accident, but secretly told himself to watch her. (Superior Spider-Man #31)
Liz was next seen at a meeting with the Department of Corrections, making a case for them to purchase Alchemax technology for their new prison facility. Along with her were Tiberius Stone and her step brother, Mark Raxton. They promised that their prison design would rehabilitate inmates while keeping costs low and not sacrificing quality. The Corrections officials were impressed by their plans but Liz was still worried about their competition, Parker Industries. While Peter hurried to his meeting with the Department of Corrections looking disheveled (he had been fighting the Iguana), she knew he had been doing that sort of thing since high school and still making the grade. She wished there were a way to guarantee Alchemax's success over Parker Industries, but Stone and Raxton already had a plan for that. (Amazing Spider-Man #16 vol 3)
"The Land Before Crime"
Liz was taking a call about a situation at Alchemax when she was paid a surprise visit by Venom. He had captured a reptilian creature in the sewer that had killed a pair of teenagers and terrified a third, a creature wearing clothing with the Alchemax logo. She was unimpressed by him, and assumed he had come for hush money. His mercenary days were over, he told her, but he did want her help. The alien symbiote had been acting strangely violent and he wanted her scientists to find out why. After getting a sample, Liz informed Venom about a program Alchemax had been working on for the military involving rapid cell growth for use on soldiers in the battlefield. Her company had been given Dr. Vincent Stegron, the Dinosaur Man, for use in the research. Naturally, Stegron escaped with $70 million of scientific equipment and many transformed volunteers. Liz told him that his payment for returning Stegron and the equipment would be the cure for the symbiote. (Venom #151)
After Venom escaped from Stegron, he reported back to Liz, who was unhappy to hear that there were far more people affected by Stegron than they first thought. Her good news was that her scientist had discovered what made Venom so aggressive. While working with the FBI, Brock had been bonded to Toxin, and the feds kept him full of chemicals to keep the younger symbiote docile. These drugs were still in Eddie and were causing physical and mental deterioration in the alien. The doctors created a drug to balance out what was happening and it would have to be taken every 36 to 48 hours. They would give him more, after he captured Stegron. He wasnt happy to go back after the dinosaur man and Liz reassured him that Stegron had telepathic control over the transformed people and they would rebel against him once the mental control was broken. (Venom #152)
After Stegron was defeated, Liz supplied a months worth of drugs for Eddie. He wanted to be hired by her, and she refused, saying Alchemax was already under enough scrutiny without employing a federal fugitive. She suggested he steal from the crooks he beat up. She wanted to know what happened to the dino men Venom fought. She wanted them captured so they couldn't be traced back to her and he lied and said they were mentally animals and ran off. They couldnt be traced to Alchemax. She told Eddie he should get a job telling stories, he was good at it. (Venom #153)
|Jan 1996||FB: Amazing Fantasy #17|
|Aug 1962||App: Amazing Fantasy #15|
|May 1989||App: Spider-Man: Parallel Lives|
|Dec 1995||App: Amazing Fantasy #16|
|Mar 1996||App: Amazing Fantasy #18|
Here is the Full Appearance List (161 Apps) for Elizabeth (Allan) Osborn.
The assistance of the Marvel Chronology Project is gratefully acknowledged.
Some of the above information is extracted from the various versions of the Official Handbook to the Marvel Universe and the more recent Marvel Encyclopaedias.